Most Reverend Joseph Dixon

 Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland - 1806-1866

An article prepared by Mr. Bernard Herron, after his retirement as principal of Primate Dixon Boys' Primary School


The Dixon family lived in a single storey farmhouse at Corrainey along the side of the road leading from Coalisland down into Bush.  James Dixon, who was born in 1776, married Jane Casey, who was born in 1777.  They are buried in Killyman Churchyard, with a daughter Mary, who died in August, 1827, at the age of thirteen.  They had a family of four girls - Catherine later Mrs McGovern), Sarah (married Hugh Curran, a farmer), Jane (married James Magill, a publican), and Mary (died young) and three boys - Joseph, James and Francis.

They had a farm of 8 acres 3 rood and 35 perches on which there were three houses, let to James Reynolds, Robert Currie and Patrick Hillen.  These were the boom years of the domestic linen industry, between 1775 and 1825, until the factories took over all the trade.  Spinners and weavers worked in their own homes and generally worked through an agent to sell their linen at the weekly market in Dungannon Market Square, where the population doubled on market days.  It is probable that the Dixon family had an interest in the linen industry.  Francis, the heir, certainly owned webs and looms in the homes of weavers in 1860.

The Coalisland of Joseph Dixon’s young day was a growing, developing community.  The Canal was completed in 1787 and, for the next Century and a half, carried heavy traffic.  Wharfing and warehouses were around its basin.  Many industries had grown out of the local coal and fireclay mining.  S. Lewis in his 'Topographical Dictionary of Ireland' published in 1837 refers to Coalisland's many aworks, potteries, flourmills, iron works, forges, plating mills, spade mills and. works for the manufacture of firebricks.  The 1834 map of the area shows tile works, grain mills, a starch factory and bleach greens.

There is a long-standing tradition in Coalisland that Joseph was born on 1st July 1806, in a lodging house, approached by three stone steps, which stood along the back River to the rear of Barrack Street in the town.  It seems a reasonable explanation that Jane was on business in the village, when Joseph decided to be born. Sister Mary Cusack who wrote a life of Dr. Dixon in 1878, says he was born in the Parish of Donaghenry.  Corrainey is in Dungannon Parish, the Parish of Ballyclog and Donaghenry was separated from Clonoe by Dr. Curtis in 1822 and Barrack Street was in Donaghenry.

Jane Dixon was a woman of piety and was interested in educating her family in days when education was the exception rather than the rule.  Joseph Dixon, in later years, referred to her devotion to the Blessed Virgin.

'Take note of my name being Joseph, and what will help you, I am sure, to remember, it is this, that I am not named after a member of my family, but my mother gave me the name of Joseph, because it was the name of the Spouse of the Blessed Virgin.'

Early Education                                  

The Report of the National Commission for Education in 1826 mentions a number of Schools in the area, but there is no record of where he received his early education.  It was obviously a very good one.  He often told a story of an incident on his way from school one day.  He was walking along with a companion when a boy of another religion began to verbally abuse them for being Catholics.  The companion took the situation and the miscreant in hand and ended the matter.


At the age of 16, on the 26th August 1822, Joseph Dixon entered Maynooth to study for the Priesthood.  He followed a brilliant course and graduated with distinction.  His brother James followed him to Maynooth a few years later and was one of the outstanding students of his time.  James later left the Diocesan Clergy and joined the Congregation of the Missions - the Vincentians.

At the end of his first year in the Dunboyne Institute Joseph competed with two brilliant classmates for the Professorship of Moral Philosophy in Maynooth College.  Dr. Whitehead was successful and the other, Dr. Magennis, was later appointed Professor of Theology in 1830.  These three were ordained on the same day in June 1829.

Dr. Dixon was appointed junior Dean in Maynooth in September 1829, and was promoted to Senior Dean in September 1833.  As Dean he was said to have been exact on breaches of discipline, but he always tried to be a guide in the formation of the characters of future priests.

After an extensive examination in Hebrew, Syriac and Chaldaic, by a panel chaired by Archbishop Murray of Dublin, Dr. Dixon was appointed Professor of Sacred Scripture and Hebrew in September 1834.  He was highly regarded by his peers and by his students, both as a teacher and as a scholar.  Evidence of his deep scholarship came when, in 1852, he produced his book "A General Introduction To The Sacred Scripture".  He wrote this book for the student of Scripture and for the educated layman, as there was, at that time, no such book by a Catholic author in the English language.  It was a very comprehensive, learned and theologically correct work.  It was well received and highly praised by Scripture scholars.  He was justly proud of the work and on the occasion of an audience with the Pope at the time of the Definition of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, he presented Pius IX with a copy.

Maynooth was the hub of Irish Ecclesiastical life and little happened throughout the land that was not discussed there.  Dr. Dixon loved the intellectual stimulation of his fellow professors and the opportunity for study.  For a man, already of deep piety, it was a place where he could develop and increase his life of devotion.  The formation of the minds and characters of future priests was a task he relished.

He was well aware of the turmoil in the Church at the time.  Because of the work of the Revolutionists, Pius IX and the Church Government had to leave Rome.  Irish Church affairs were handled by Cardinal Fransoni from Naples since 1848.

The Irish Church needed time to get itself organised after the ravages of the Penal Law years.  The terrible trauma of the death, disease, poverty and emigration of the Famine Years of 1845-49 had also to be dealt with.  Concessions granted by the Government after Emancipation had to be examined and viewed with suspicion after years of repression.

The Irish bishops were deeply divided on three of these concessions.  One group was headed by Primate Crolly and Archbishop Murray of Dublin and the other, by Archbishop McHale of Tuam. The three matters were the National Schools Bill - to give education to young children in non denominational schools - The Charitable Bequests Bill, about what legacies could be left to religious institutions and the most divisive, The Queen's Colleges Bill - the Universities at Belfast, Cork and Galway.  It is necessary to mention these to introduce Dr. Paul Cullen, Rector of the Propaganda College in Rome and formerly Rector of the Irish College in Rome.  The National Schools and Queen's Colleges disputes were referred to Rome and Paul Cullen was called in by Propaganda as a consultor.  This brought him more to the fore-front in Rome when Archbishop Crolly died in April 1849 and the See of Armagh was vacant.

The Appointment Of Dr.  Paul Cullen               

In accordance with the Propaganda Rule of 1829 for the selection of a bishop, the parish priests of Armagh Diocese met in Armagh on 22nd May 1849.  They selected, by vote, three priests whom they suggested to Rome as candidates for the bishopric Joseph Dixon (26 votes); Michael Kieran, P.P., Dundalk (12 votes); and John O'Hanlon, Professor of Theology in Maynooth (12 votes).  Propaganda instead appointed Paul Cullen to be Archbishop.  The English Catholic newspaper 'The Tablet" on Saturday, 12th January 1850 argued that it was unheard of that at least one of those proposed by the Parish Priests, even if taken out of the order of the voting, was not appointed.  They took this as another case of Rome putting in their own man to carry out Rome's ideas.  Propaganda had the right to reject the candidates and it was almost inevitable, in the circumstances, that Paul Cullen - the strong, brilliant scholar, astute leader, fully aware of Irish Church affairs, absolutely faithful to Rome and outside the Episcopal squabbles - should be chosen.  He was appointed in 1849 and lived all his time as Archbishop of Armagh, in Drogheda.

Archbishop Cullen was moved as Archbishop of Dublin on 1st May 1852 and continued to dominate Irish and world Church affairs until his death on 24th October   1878.  He was created Ireland's first Cardinal in 1861.  He held Dr. Dixon in high regard and took him to the Synod of Thurles as his theologian. Dr. Dixon also acted as theologian at the Synod of Oscott.

Appointment As Archbishop                     

Joseph Dixon was reading his office in his room when Archbishop Cullen, with Rev.  Dr. Carew and Dr. Callan, arrived to inform him of his appointment as Archbishop of Armagh by Pius IX on 13th October, 1852.  Reluctantly, he accepted and, when they left, he wept bitterly.  After thirty years in the calm, serene atmosphere of Maynooth he had to face out into the rough seas of a divided hierarchy and the problems already outlined.  In a letter of November 1852, he gives some indication of the soul-searching it caused him before he bowed to the Will of God.

"You must excuse me for having delayed so long to acknowledge your exceeding kindness to me upon the most trying occasion of my life.  This appointment to Armagh has been to me a source of great grief and trouble, and although a part of the trouble is now past, as my consecration has taken place, I still see nothing but a continuation of great grief and great trouble to the end of my life.  I was told however, by so many in whom I had confidence, that this appeared to be the Will of God, that I was afraid to act otherwise than I have done."

His consecration was performed by Archbishop Cullen, assisted by Dr. Brown, Bishop of Kilmore and Dr. Errington, Bishop of Plymouth, on 21st November 1852 in the College Chapel m Maynooth.  Dr Dixon chose the date because it was a Feast of Our Lady and he had invited Dr. Errington as a gesture to the closer co-operation he knew the Pope wanted between the English and Irish bishops.  His pectoral Cross was the gift of Dr. Kirby, Rector of the Irish College in Rome and the agent for the Irish bishops there.  He took possession of the See of Armagh as the 105th Successor of St. Patrick.

Dean Michael Kieran of Dundalk welcomed him in October 1852, when he wrote congratulating him on his appointment, assuring him that he would immediately notify the clergy of the Diocese "that the Holy Father has placed over them a man of whose fitness for the high office to which he has been appointed, there cannot be any doubt in their minds".

In the pattern set by Archbishop Crolly but not followed by Archbishop Cullen he spent half of the year in Armagh and half in Drogheda, moving from one to the other every three weeks or so.

The Cathedral                                   

Archbishop Crolly had started the building of a new Cathedral in Armagh but, when the walls were completed to the plans of Mr. Duff, the funds available were diverted to Famine Relief.  Dr. Dixon thought it time to resume the building and employed James J. McCarthy, a pupil of Pugin, as architect.  On Easter Monday 1854, called "Resumption Monday', he began the work with Pontifical High Mass in the unroofed Cathedral.  Tarpaulins were stretched from wall to wall but these ripped in a terrible storm which blew up and lasted throughout the Mass and Sermon, and hail bounced off the worshippers.  There was, however, an excellent collection.

Archbishop Dixon's first pastoral letter made an appeal for money to complete the Cathedral.  For a steady cash flow, he organised a weekly penny collection.  Two priests from the Diocese, Father Donnelly and Father McParland collected funds in Ireland and Father McCullagh collected in Canada and in USA in 1855.  Dr. Dixon’s last general appeal for the Cathedral to Irish Catholics at home and abroad had a great response.  His final effort was to call a Committee together from every parish in the Diocese to organise a Bazaar.  Prizes came from far and wide.

Pius IX gave a beautiful ivory carving of Raphael's Madonna di Poligno.

T'he Emperor of Austria sent 2 vases and a specially commissioned table.

The Emperor Napoleon III of France, sent two beautiful vases of Severes China.

The Bazaar showed a profit of £7,000.

There is a memorial window in the Cathedral commissioned by Archbishop McGettigan in 1879 to Archbishop Crolly, who started the Cathedral and to Archbishop Dixon who completed the fabric.

The Synod Of Drogheda                  

Primate Dixon, with great zeal for the care of his flock, carried on the work of Archbishop Cullen on discipline, Church structures and rules of worship.  To this end he organised a Synod of bishops of the Northern Province, the first such possible in 300 years.  He built up to this through 1853 into 1854.  He let things run on a bit, hoping for a "greater unanimity and fuller participation on the part of the bishops to decree those points of discipline which would be for the benefit of religion in their respective Diocese".

The Synod passed off very well.  All the bishops of the north attended with their theologians.  Dr. Michael Kieran of Dundalk preached at each session and Dr. Dixon closed the Synod.

Dr. Dixon followed the Synod with a pastoral letter passing on its deliberations to his people.  Speaking of the faith he wrote "There never was a period in the history of this country when the fundamental principle of our religion was exposed to more insidious attacks than at the present time".  He compared the temptations to the faith during the Famine Years, to the temptations Jesus suffered in the desert after his fast.  He ended with an exhortation to the proper observance of the Sacraments.  He considered that the Synod was efficacious in correcting abuses, in invigorating discipline and in the drawing closer together the bonds which unite the laity to the clergy, the clergy to the bishops and the bishops to the Holy Father.

With Father Francis Slane of Dungannon, he set about the task of improving the clergy in his own Diocese and he was concerned at the scarcity of priests in the Diocese at that time.

The Trip To Rome                              

In September 1854, he was invited by Pius IX to attend the ceremonies of the Definition of the Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady.  He travelled to Rome with Archbishop Cullen of Dublin and Bishop Murphy of Cloyne and he later described his entire journey in a book he wrote after his return.

He had three audiences with the Pope, one of which was a one-to-one meeting, where the Pope asked his advice on some matters.

On the journey home, he visited several shrines, one of which was in Chambery.  Here he spent a few days at festivities surrounding the body of St. Concord or Cornelius, an Archbishop of Armagh who died there in 1175 and was regarded there as a Saint.  He was given relics of the Saint and, on return home, he gave a portion of the rib bone to the Presentation Convent in Drogheda and a portion of the thigh bone to the Sacred Heart Convent in Armagh.

Religious Orders                                

In his special care for the poor, Dr. Dixon introduced religious orders into the Diocese for social work and for education.  He started the 'St.  Peter's, Clothing Society' in Drogheda to provide clothes for the poor women of Drogheda.  He frequently called into the meetings of the St. Vincent de Paul Society.  He introduced the Sisters of Charity, from Paris, to Drogheda in 1855 to visit the poor and to instruct the factory girls.  They began an industrial school for little boys and an orphanage for girls.

He introduced the Christian Brothers to Drogheda to take charge of the National Schools.

In 1859 he opened a second convent in Ardee, for nuns from Dundalk

He helped the Sacred Heart nuns to stay in Armagh and, in April 1857, laid the foundation stone for their new convent.  He gave the name 'Mount Saint Catherine' to the hill on which it stood.

In 1861, he invited the Vincentian Fathers to take over the running of St. Patrick's Minor Seminary in Armagh.  Also in 1861, he brought the Marist Fathers to Dundalk to educate the middle and upper classes.

In introducing the teaching orders, Primate Dixon was probably taking precautions against government changes he feared might be made in the education system.

At the beginning of the 19th Century, proselytising societies were sparing no effort to wean Ireland from Catholicism by controlling the education of the children.  In 1824 the Irish hierarchy, without funds to counteract the influence of these schools, asked the state to intervene to "promote the education of the Roman Catholic poor in Ireland in the most effectual manner".  The reply was the setting up of interdenominational National Schools.  One of the two Catholics on the seven person National Board was the Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. Murray, who was a strong supporter of the system and who carried on a correspondence in the Dublin papers from 1838 until 1840 with Dr. McHale, Archbishop of Tuam, the strongest opponent of the system.  The Protestant Archbishop of Dublin also a member of the Board, had publicly said he would use the system to "wean the Irish from the abuses of Popery".  The system was up and running and, by the end of the 1840's, had schools all over Ireland, but there were still many problems between government and the bishops.  When Archbishop Murray died in 1852 and Dr. Cullen moved to Dublin, opposition to the system increased.  Dr. Cullen was a strong opponent of nondenominational education and, like Dr. McHale, a great believer in the bishop's total right in the education of his flock.  On his appointment to Armagh, Dr. Dixon took the same line.  He suspected the motives of the British Government in education partly because of the alleged complicity of the British in the 1848 rebellion in the Papal States, something he often mentioned.  He was also opposed to the Model Schools and his great fear was that children would experience nothing but interdenominational schooling through a primary and secondary system leading to the "Godless Universities".  He was present at the meeting of bishops on the 2nd August 1859, when they stated their position in a joint pastoral, in which they called for public support in their claim to have all schools for the education of Catholics under the control of each local bishop.

Dr. Dixon was involved in the setting up of a new Catholic university in Dublin.  Again there was dissension amongst the bishops on some points.  Dr. Dixon supported the appointment of Dr. John Newman (later Cardinal) as the first rector in 1854. When Newman later resigned in 1858 he wrote a warm letter to Dr. Dixon.

“I shall ever consider it one of the greatest honours of my life to have been permitted to co-operate with you. I shall ever indeed remember with gratitude the kindness which on occasions I have received from your hands.”

The Diocesan Chapter and Other Reforms                               

Amongst other reforms Primate Dixon set about restoring the clerical structures in his Diocese and he had a regularly constituted Dean and Chapter of l3 in place by January 1856.  In doing this he decided to pass over old prebends, and to appoint a certain number of Canons.  As he said himself, "The Protestants have long since seized upon the revenues of the prebends, and the inconvenience in keeping them in our present chapter is that they are the names of parishes, and consequently, the Parish Priest of those parishes might be expecting the nomination to them, although sometimes, those Parish Priests might be the least eligible to places in the Chapter'.

He insisted on the performance of marriages, baptisms, confessions and public masses in a Church.  By 1857, he had seen to the erection of Stations of the Cross in all the Churches and public Chapels of the Diocese.  One of the new Churches he consecrated was the Church of SS.  Mary & Joseph in his home town of Coalisland for Father Peter B. Daly in 1860.

Secret Societies                                          

He had little time for politics and hated the times of elections.  Coming from near the homes of the “Killyman Wreckers" of 1830 and the scene of the Battle of Clonoe in 1829, Ecumenism was not high on his agenda, but he was always a man of peace.  He constantly condemned the proselytism which was a problem at the time.  Right through his pastorate he condemned secret societies.  In his pastoral on 24th February 1862, he wrote 'The existence of secret Societies in this Diocese, is another evil, against which we think it our duty to raise our voice on this occasion... generally known by the name of the Ribbon Society... No priest in any country could, without making himself an accomplice in a frightful sacrilege, admit to the Sacraments any Freemason, Ribbonman, or other member of such societies".

He urged the priests to detach anyone they could from such societies and prevent others from joining

In the February 1864 pastoral he denounced "once more the evil of Ribbonism" and "all other societies having the same end in view as the Ribbon Society, and seeking that end by the same means".

His views on these societies would have been strengthened by his opinion of the Revolutionists in the Papal States.

The Primate and the Pope                         

Primate Dixon was immensely taken by the Pope on his visit to Rome and was totally committed to him as Head of the Church.  To provide material aid for the Pope in his difficulties, he established ‘The Confraternity of St. Peter's Pence’ which provided prayers and finance for the Pontiff.  He promoted this society in two pastorals.

The event that brought him most notoriety outside of Ireland was a famous speech he made at a meeting in Drogheda Church, called to show support for the Pope in the political unrest in Italy.  Dr. Dixon condemned all who had helped the enemies of the Pope and he especially castigated the interference of the Emperor Napoleon III. He followed this speech with a letter to the ‘Freeman's Journal’ on 4th January 1860 on the same matter, which ended ‘Robber!  Take your hand from the throat of the Vicar of Christ’.

'The Times’ in London picked it up and in an article under ‘Church Thunder’ it described the letter as an excommunication and concluded, "For violence of language this outburst of Archiepiscopal wrath is so far without parallel since the opening of the new Chapters in Irish agitation”.

When he read ‘The era’, the Emperor immediately made a strong complaint to the Papal Nuncio in France.

Dr. Dixon again showed his devotion to the Holy See, when he made a remarkable defense of the temporal rights of the Pope in a letter to the priests of Armagh Diocese.

He was also the real organiser of a large body of young Irish men, possibly as many as one thousand, who joined the Irish Brigade in the Papal Service.  He sent Father James Powderly to Paris, to guide them through France.

Tasks For Propaganda                            

He was asked to deal with problems in other Diocese.  On the death of the Bishop of Ardagh in 1853, he found the affairs of that Diocese in poor shape, so he turned down the candidate proposed as bishop and asked for a very strong character as bishop, to straighten up the affairs of the Diocese.

For nearly twelve years, he dealt with the affairs of the Diocese of Down & Connor, where an ailing bishop found difficulty in dealing with great problems in Belfast.  He dealt with the matter with compassion and diplomatic skill.

He was charged with the task of investigating the activities of the Boards of Maynooth and Paris Colleges.  He found nothing astray, but was most displeased with the submissions of some Maynooth Professors.  In another review of the Irish College in Paris, he recommended that the staffing be taken out of the hands of the secular clergy and be given over to the Vincentians.

The Person                                                

Joseph Dixon was a very small, slight man and he kept his youthful appearance until middle age.  As Dean in Maynooth, he was at times mistaken for a student.  A group who argued against his appointment as bishop, pointed out that, because of his lack of height and his youthful appearance, he would not bring to the Primacy the dignity of bearing that it required.  A man who was at a function in St. Mary's Church in Chapel Lane, Belfast, described him when he was an older Archbishop.  'We saw a little man, with white hair, hat in hand, pass rapidly amongst the kneeling people giving his blessing as he passed".

The thirty years he spent in Maynooth, as student and Professor, afforded him a sheltered life and innocence of outlook.  He was a timid and shy man and was easily convinced by those he respected.  He retained, through life, the shrewd honesty and kindliness of his farming stock.  He took a great interest in eccentric and odd characters and often recounted anecdotes of his youth and home area.  A natural communicator, he was a prolific letter writer and set a time aside daily when he personally dealt with all his correspondence.

He was a man of prayer and of more than ordinary sanctity.  He developed his spiritual life to the full.  He arose each morning before five and began his day with prayer and Mass.  He had special devotion to Our Lady, to St. Joseph and to St. Catherine of Sienna.  He gave practical expression of his deep love of the Eucharist, in the instructions he gave to his priests on the care of the altar vessels and altars; also their showing, by their clothing and attitude around the altar, the respect they had for the Sacrament.

A simple, uncomplicated man, he was fiercely loyal to the Church and to the Holy See.  His own story of his visit to Rome for the Definition of the Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception is filled with the joy he had in meeting with bishops from other lands and the awe he felt in the presence of great figures of the Church.  When speaking out against what he saw as an abuse, he could be very direct.  As he said to Father Powderly, when sending the letter about Napoleon to ‘Freeman’s Journal’ - "There are times when the mildest of men must come out".

He recognised the influence of the press and used it to his advantage and made efforts to have a Catholic press in the North.

He was a strict teetotaller and ‘Father Matthew’ man all his life until, in his last few years, on medical advice, he took a little wine after dinner.  He made many condemnations of drunkenness and disliked occasions such as elections, when drunkenness was likely.

He was nationalistic in a non-political sense.  On the Continent he expressed his annoyance when anyone spoke of an Irish saint as English or Scots.  A gift signed ‘The Roman Catholics of Drogheda’ drew from him the complaint that this was a name ‘our enemies’ call us -we are Irish Catholics'.

The outstanding mark of his primacy was his care for the weak and the poor in his Diocese.  He showed his genuine concern for them in his frequent visits to meetings of the St. Vincent de Paul Society, in the societies he formed and in the religious orders he introduced.  In his will, he left the balance of his estate to the poor of Armagh and Drogheda.

The Archbishop knew well the value of a sound Catholic education and he spent much of his time trying to ensure that all his flock had the opportunity of receiving it. It was fitting that Father Peter Quinn, P.P., chose the name of ‘Primate Dixon’ for the Schools he opened in April 1913.

Dean Gilmartin of Maynooth wrote the Memoir of Primate Dixon in Healy's ‘Centenary History of Maynooth’ in 1895.

"If the good that lives after a man be the test of his goodness; if his written word be a reflection of his mind; if the esteem of one’s contemporaries count for anything, then we may safely say that the subject of this memoire is entitled to be placed among the illustrious sons, not merely of Maynooth, but of Ireland."

Death And Burial                                          

He became ill at the end of April 1866.  His brother James, then Provincial of the Vincentians came to visit him on his deathbed.  They said good-bye and promised to meet in Heaven.  Several priests came in later and, while prayers were being said, he passed away on the Feast of St. Catherine of Sienna, 29th  April 1866.

The following day a group of six priests, including the Vicar General, arrived at the Sacred Heart Convent in Armagh for a sealed packet which they knew held the Primate's burial instructions.

This read - The nuns of the Sacred Heart established at Mount St. Catherine, Armagh, will permit me to be buried in the Cemetery, on Mount Saint Catherine.  Some kind friend will put a marble slab over my grave with the following inscription

+ Joseph

Expectans Resurrectionem Carnis

S. Catharina Senensis,

Ora Pro Me



The Blessed Cornelius by Most Rev.  Joseph Dixon - 1855.
The life of the Most Rev.  Joseph Dixon, D.D., by Sister Mary Cusack - 1878.
Seanchas Ardmhacha Vol. 3, p. 389.
Seanchas Ardmhacha Vol.  Cardinal O'Fiaich.
Seanchas Ardmhacha Sister Phil Kilroy - 1979.
Seanchas Ardmhacha Very Rev.  Amb.  McCauley.
Cathedral Archives.
Stuart's Historical Memoirs - 1900.
Healy's Centenary History of Maynooth College.
Materials supplied by Seamus Lynch, Donaghmore and James Donaghy, Clonmore.
Griffiths Valuation of Tenements - 1860.
O.S. Map Reference 20B 20AB.